Unit 1 - Computer Architecture

Subunit 1 - Computer Models

Input-Process-Output Model Input-Process-Output Model / Input / Process / Output / Data Flow / System / Model / Abstraction / Feedback / Control /
Sequential, Parallel & Multi-agent Models Parallel algorithm / Sequential / Parallel / Multi-agent / Models / Task / Order / Simultaneously / Processors / Threads / Autonomous /
Von Neumann Architecture Von Neumann Architecture / Stored-Program Computer / Central Processing Unit / Memory / Instruction Fetch / Instruction Decode / Instruction Execution / Control Unit / Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) / Input/Output (I/O) / bus / control bus / data bus / address bus / register / accumulator / program counter / memory data register / memory address register / instruction register /
Fetch – Execute Cycle Fetch / Execute / Cycle / Instruction / Memory / CPU / Step / Retrieve / Sequence / Carry out / Fetch-Decode-Execute Cycle / Decode /

Subunit 2 - The CPU

CPU, GPU & Motherboard Central Processing Unit / Microprocessor / Instruction Set / Clock Speed / Cache Memory / Pipeline / Multicore / CPU / heatsink / fan / thermal paste / overclocking / liquid cooling / finned heatsink / GPU / Parallel processing / Graphics memory / Ray tracing / VRAM / memory slots / expansion slots / Power connectors / Form factor / power supply unit /
CPU Performance Factors Clock Speed / Cache Memory / Instruction Set / Number of Cores / Hyper-Threading / Pipeline Length / Bus Speed / Cache Latency / Power Consumption / Thermal Design Power / Thread Count / Thermal Design Power (TDP) / Instruction Pipelining /

Subunit 3 - Embedded Systems

Embedded Devices Embedded devices / Microcontroller / Firmware / Real-time operating system (RTOS) / Sensor / Internet of Things (IoT) / Embedded software / Single-board computer /

Unit 10 - Languages & IDEs

Subunit 2 - High & Low Level Languages

High & Low Level Languages High-level language / Low-level language / Compiler / Interpreter / Assembly language / Machine language / Abstraction / Portability / Efficiency / Readability /
Compilers, Interpreters, Assemblers & Translators Compiler / Interpreter / Assembler / Translator / Lexical Analysis / Syntax Analysis / Semantic Analysis / Code Generation / Optimization / Linker /

Subunit 2 - Integrated Developer Environments

Integrated Developer Environments IDE / Code editor / Debugging / Compiler / Syntax highlighting / Version control / Auto-completion / Project management / Syntax errors / Refactoring /

Unit 2 - Memory, Storage & Data Representation

Subunit 1 - Primary Storage (RAM & ROM)

Main Memory Cache Memory / Hits / Misses / RAM / Memory Module / Virtual Memory / Latency / Non-volatile Memory / Memory Management / Swap Space /

Subunit 2 - Secondary Storage

Magnetic Storage Devices Magnetic storage / Hard disk drive / Read/write head / Track / Sector / Platter / Disk controller / Magnetic tape / Tape drive / Backup / Archiving / Data retention / Data recovery / Data redundancy / Data mirroring / Redundant Array of Independent Disks / Solid-state drive /
Optical Storage Devices Optical Storage Devices / CD-ROM / DVD / Blu-Ray / Read-only / Write-once / Rewritable / Sector / Track / Pit / Land / Laser / Optical Disc Drive / Reflectivity / Data Density / Rotational Speed / Access Time / Buffer / Caddy / Tray /
Electrical Storage Devices (SSD,Flash Drive) Electrical Storage Devices / SSD / Flash Drive / Storage / Energy / Data / Integrated Circuits / Portable / Flash Memory / Digital /
Cloud Storage Cloud Storage / Virtualization / Data Migration / Data Center / Data Redundancy / Cloud Service Provider / Security Protocols / Subscription Model / Data Encryption / Data Replication / Private Cloud / Public Cloud / Hybrid Cloud / Network Latency / Cloud Backup / Disaster Recovery / Cloud Availability / Cloud Scalability / Data Center Virtualization / Cloud Deployment Model /
Data Backups Backup / Data loss / Disaster recovery / Incremental backup / Full backup / Differential backup / Off-site backup / On-site backup / Magnetic tape backup / Cloud backup / In-house backup / Third-party backup / Backup frequency / Backup retention / Backup verification / Virtual server backup / Physical server backup / Bare-metal restore / Backup compression / Backup encryption / Onsite backups / Offsite backups / Data redundancy / Backup validation / backup legislative compliance / compliance / audit trail / Online Backups / Offline Backups / Remote Server / Cloud-Based Storage /

Subunit 3 - Binary & Hexadecimal

Binary Numbers Binary number / Base 2 / Bit / Nibble / Byte / Binary addition / Binary subtraction / Binary conversion / Floating-point binary number /
Negative Numbers in Binary Two's complement / Negative Number / Binary Number / Sign Bit / Overflow / Magnitude / Ones Complement / Binary Representation / Sign and Magnitude /
Hexadecimal Hexadecimal / Base / Digits / Binary / Decimal / Conversion / Representation / Nibble / Byte /
Binary Addition binary addition / binary / addition / bit / carry / overflow / half adder / full adder / binary arithmetic /
Binary Shifts & Overflow Overflow / Binary shift / Binary Shifts / Shift Left / Shift Right / Logical Shift / Arithmetic Shift / Carry Bit / Shift Amount / Binary underflow / Binary arithmetic / Floating point / Machine precision /

Subunit 4 - Data Representation

ASCII & Unicode ASCII / Unicode / Character encoding / Character set / ASCII table / UTF-8 / UTF-16 / Binary representation / Bit /
B&W Images Black and White Images / Grayscale / Pixel / Binary Image / Monochrome / Contrast / Sharpness /
Grayscale Images Grayscale image / Intensity / Monochrome / Luminosity / Histogram /
Color Images RGB color model / hex code / color depth / additive color mixing / hex color code /
Data Compression Image Compression / Lossy Compression / Lossless Compression / JPEG / GIF / PNG / Bitrate / DCT / Quantization / Compression / Data / Consecutive / Efficient / Image compression artifacts / Blockiness / Color bleeding / Noise / Ring artifacts / Posterization / Aliasing /
Sound Representation Sound Representation / Audio Signal / Amplitude / Frequency / Waveform / Sampling Rate / Bit Depth / Digital Audio / Analog-to-Digital Conversion / Condenser microphone / Dynamic microphone / Frequency response / Phantom power / Diaphragm /
Binary & Denary Prefixes binary / denary / prefix / binary prefix / denary prefix / bit / byte / kibibyte / mebibyte / gibibyte / binary search / denary conversion / binary conversion / binary code / megabits / megabytes /
Calculating file sizes

Subunit 5 - Encryption

Symmetric & Asymmetric Encryption

Subunit 6 - Data Integrity

Error Checking parity bits / error detection / odd parity / even parity / error correction / redundancy / Parity blocks / Data integrity / Checksum / RAID / Fault tolerance / Striping / Parity calculation / Capacity Overhead / MD5 / CRC / echo check / Automatic Repeat Query / Retransmission / Feedback / Packet Loss / Acknowledgment / Timeout / Sequence Number / Check digit / Luhn algorithm /

Unit 3 - Networking & The internet

Subunit 1 - Networks

Introduction to networking Networking / Router / Switch / IP Address / Protocol / LAN / WAN / Firewall / DNS / Ethernet /
Types of networks – LAN,WAN,PAN LAN / WAN / PAN / Network / Topology / Router / Switch / Firewall / IP Address / Packet / Bandwidth / Latency / Scalability / Quality of Service (QoS) / Traffic shaping / Internet of Things / Fitness Tracking / Wearable Devices / Smartwatches / Healthcare Monitoring / Personalized Entertainment / Smart Homes / Location Tracking / Mobile Payments / Encryption / WLAN / Wireless access point / SSID / Frequency band / Signal strength /
Network Topologies Network Topologies / Bus Topology / Star Topology / Ring Topology / Mesh Topology / Tree Topology / Hybrid Topology / Client-Server Topology / Peer-to-Peer Topology /
Client server vs Peer to Peer Client server / Peer to Peer / Server / Client / Centralized / Decentralized / Scalability / Reliability / Security / Efficiency / P2P network / File sharing / Distributed network / Resource sharing / Fault tolerance /
Network Speeds Network Speeds / Bandwidth / Latency / Ping / Download Speed / Upload Speed / Throughput / Jitter / Quality of Service (QoS) / Packet Loss /
Network Protocols TCP / UDP / HTTP / HTTPS / FTP / SMTP / POP3 / IMAP / SSH / TELNET / NTP / DNS / DHCP / ARP / ICMP / RTP / SIP / IPSEC / Network Protocol / Handshake / Standard /
TCP/IP Model Stacks & Layers Network Stacks / Layers / Data Link Layer / Network Layer / Transport Layer / Application Layer / network stack / TCP/IP / routing / interoperability / Scalability / Reliability / Interchangeability / Evolvability / frames / packets / segments / payload /

Subunit 2 - Wired Networks

Wired Network Hardware Router / Switch / Firewall / Hub / Ethernet Cable / Modem / Wireless Access Point / Network Interface Card (NIC) / Bridge / Network Switch / MAC address table / MAC address / Physical port / Network interface controller / Ethernet / Routing / IP Addressing / Switching / Network Address Translation (NAT) / Quality of Service (QoS) / Virtual Private Network (VPN) / Load Balancing / Packet Filtering / Wi-Fi / SSID / WPA2 / encryption / bandwidth / servers / hosting / data center / virtualization / dedicated server / redundancy /
Wired Networks Wired Networks / Ethernet / LAN / Router / Switch / Cable / Fiber Optics / Bandwidth / CAT5e /

Subunit 3 - Wireless Networks

Wireless Networks Wireless Networks / Wireless Communication / Wi-Fi / Bluetooth / Mobile Network / Cellular Network / LAN / WAN / Signal Strength / Roaming / Satellite network / Mesh network / Ad hoc network / NFC /
Mobile communication standards wifi / router / hotspot / SSID / encryption / bandwidth / signal strength / access point / Authentication / Key / Vulnerability / Cracking / Internet of things / Sensors / Smart Home / Security /
Wireless Network Hardware NAT / Private IP / Public IP / LAN / Gateway / Router / IP Lease / dhcp / DHCP server / authentication / integrity / authentication protocol /

Subunit 4 - Internet & World Wide Web

Internet vs WWW Internet / WWW / Network / Browser / HTML / URL / ISP / HTTP / Download / Upload / instant messaging client / text messaging / file sharing / group chat / emoticons / presence status / email clients / inbox / spam / attachment / folders / cloud storage client / file syncing / automatic backup / offline access /
IP v4, IPv6 & MAC Addresses IPv4 / IPv6 / MAC Address / IP / Internet Protocol version 4 / Internet Protocol version 6 / Media Access Control Address / Network Interface / Data Link Layer / OSI Model / public IP / private IP / NAT / MAC Addresses / mac address spoofing /
HTTP, HTML, CSS & Javascript HTTP / HTML / URL / GET / POST / HTTP Response / Status Code / Header / Hyperlink / Tag / HTTP Cookie / Session Cookie / Persistent Cookie / Tracking Cookie / Selector / Value / embedded inline external CSS / style attribute / external CSS / stylesheet / cascade /
URLS, DNS & Address resolution URL / DNS / Address Resolution / Domain / IP Address / Top-Level Domain (TLD) / Hostname / Resolver / URL Encoding / Root DNS Server / subdomain / Host / Hierarchy / Parent Domain / Domain Registrar / Top level domain /

Unit 4 - Network Security

Subunit 1 - Network Security

Network validation & authentication Network validation / Authentication / Network security / Digital certificate / Biometric authentication / Access control / Two-factor authentication / Intrusion detection system / Firewall / Security audit / password authentication / credentials / authentication factor / phishing / asymmetric encryption / symmetric encryption / public key / private key / key exchange / encryption / decryption / certificate authority / digital signature / certificate revocation / key pair /
Viruses computer virus / Antivirus / Trojan Horse / Worm / Ransomware /
Malware Malware / Virus / Trojan / Ransomware / Spyware / Adware / Worm / Rootkit / Keylogger / Phishing /
Spyware spyware /
Phishing Phishing / Spoofing / Two-factor authentication / Phishing website /
DDOS Attacks
Brute Force Attacks brute force attacks / dictionary attack /
SQL Injection Attacks SQL injection / Input sanitation /
Insider Threats Insider Threats / Privileged Access /
Social Engineering Social Engineering / Pretexting / Baiting / Tailgating / Impersonation / Spear Phishing /
Physical Network Attacks Physical system attacks / Eavesdropping / Tampering / Impersonation / Physical Tapping /
Botnets Botnet / Zombie Computers / Command and Control Server / Infected Devices / Bot Herders /

Subunit 2 - Protecting Systems

Protecting networks Firewall / Antivirus / Intrusion Detection System / Encryption / Virtual Private Network / Two-factor authentication / Access control / Intrusion Prevention System / Vulnerability scanning / Security policy / Antivirus Software / Network Segmentation / network security audit / penetration testing / Acceptable Use Policy / User Agreement / Internet Usage Policy / incident response plan / mitigation /

Unit 5 - Computer Software

Subunit 1 - Operating Systems

User Interfaces CLI / GUI / WIMP / terminal / shell / command / prompt / output / mouse / keyboard / menu / drag and drop / window / icon / scroll bar / tooltip / shortcut / file explorer / taskbar / control panel / remote access / SSH / Remote desktop / WYSIWYG / User Interface / Interface / multimedia / digital media /
Operating Systems Operating System / Multi-tasking / Multi-user / Kernel / Interrupt / Command Line Interface / Graphical User Interface / File System / Device Driver / Virtual Memory / Process / Thread / Deadlock / File Allocation Table (FAT) / Disk Defragmentation / File Compression / Encryption / System Call / Boot Loader / System Tray /
System / Utility Software Operating System / Utility Software / Compression Software / Backup Software / Disk Defragmenter / Anti-virus Software / Firewall Software / Spyware Removal Software / Data Recovery Software / Encryption Software / Debugging Software / Compiler / Interpreter / Device Driver / Registry Cleaner / System Restore / Task Manager / Disk Cleanup / System Information / File Manager / System Utility Software / Antivirus Software / Driver Updater / Uninstaller / File Compression Software /

Unit 6 - Ethical & Legal Considerations

Subunit 1 - Ethical Issues & responsibilities

Environmental Impact of technology on society Environmental Impact / Technology / Society / Pollution / E-waste / Carbon footprint / Deforestation / Resource depletion / Digital divide / Greenwashing / Renewable energy / Energy efficiency / Green buildings / Eco-friendly transportation / Smart grid / Waste reduction / Precision agriculture / Environmental monitoring / Telecommuting / Habitat Loss / Species Extinction / Ecosystem / Fragmentation /
Data & Online Privacy Data / Online Privacy / Encryption / Cookies / Cybersecurity / Anonymity / Data Breach / Phishing / Digital Footprint / Privacy Policy / Data privacy / Security breach / Identity theft / Data breaches / Tracking / Consent / accuracy / retention / data protection laws / personal data / data subject / data controller / Data Minimization / Anonymization /
Inclusion in Computing Inclusion in Computing / Diversity / Equity / Underrepresented / Bias / Accessibility / Empowerment / Intersectionality / Growth Mindset / Allyship / Digital inclusion / Assistive technology / Web accessibility / Screen reader / Captioning / Inclusive design / Accessible Document Format / Alt Text / Tagged PDF / gender bias / gender gap / glass ceiling / equal opportunities / stereotype / work-life balance / mentorship / Harassment / Sexual Harassment / Microaggression / Digital divide / Technology gap / Internet inequality / Technological disparity / Access divide / Information divide / Connectivity gap / Digital literacy / Information literacy / Computer literacy / Internet literacy / Media literacy / Cybersecurity /
Professionalism in the world of IT Professionalism / Ethics / Accountability / Communication / Integrity / Confidentiality / Professional Development / Adaptability / Teamwork / Problem-solving / Objectivity / Competence / Fairness / Responsibility / Respect / Sustainability / harassment / whistleblower / reporting / discrimination / retaliation / code of conduct / whistleblower protection / moonlighting / conflict of interest / Continuing education / Certifications / Industry conferences / Online courses / Self-study / Mentorship / Professional networking /
Legal Considerations Legal Considerations / Contract Law / Intellectual Property / Privacy Laws / Employment Law / Compliance / Tort Law / Cybersecurity / Consumer Protection / Corporate Governance / Software Copyright / Patents / Infringement / Trade Secret / Open Source / Licensing / Invention / Fair Use / Freeware / Shareware / Proprietary / Commercial / Public domain / Trialware / End-user license agreement (EULA) / Site license / Software license / Proprietary license / Open source license / Freeware license / Shareware license / Commercial license / Single user license / Multi-user license / Multi User License / Cybercrime Laws / Computer Fraud / Digital Forensics / Online Harassment / Ransomware / Identity Theft / Intellectual Property Laws / Copyright / Trademark / Patent / Creative Commons / Data Protection / Breach Notification / Consent / Cybersecurity Laws / Online Defamation / Cyberbullying / Social Media / Slander / Harassment / Trolling / Online Reputation Management / Anonymity / Impersonation / Domain Name Disputes / Cybersquatting / Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy (UDRP) / DNS Hijacking /

Unit 7 - Problem Solving & Algorithms

Subunit 1 - Introduction to Algorithms

Algorithms Algorithm / Sorting / Searching / Divide and conquer / Encryption algorithm / Compression algorithm / Search algorithm / Sort algorithm / Iteration / Pattern recognition / Efficiency / Logical reasoning /
Decomposition Decomposition / Modular programming / Abstraction / Top-down design / Hierarchy / Modularity / Bottom-up Processing / Divide and Conquer / Decentralization / Component /
Flowcharts Flowchart / Process / Terminal Symbol / Decision Symbol / Process Symbol / Connector Symbol / Flowline / Input Symbol / Output Symbol / Loop Symbol / Iteration / Flowcharting Tool /
Pseudocode, Program Code & Written Descriptions Pseudocode / Program Code / Syntax / Flowchart / Variable / Control Structure / Loop / Conditional Statement /

Subunit 3 - Searching & Sorting Algorithms

Bubble Sort Bubble Sort / Comparison / Efficiency / Iteration / Swapping / In-place Sorting / Comparison Sorting / Time Complexity / Space Complexity / Worst-Case Performance / Best-Case Performance / Average-Case Performance / Optimization / Loop / Element / Ascending Order / Descending Order / Swap / Stable sorting / Recursive sorting / Comparison-based sorting / Data structures /
Merge Sort Merge Sort / Divide and conquer / Recursive / Merge / In-place sorting / Stable sort / Comparisons / Swaps / Time complexity / Best case / Average case / Worst case / Big-O notation / Space complexity / In-place merge sort / Recursion / Merge Function / Comparison-based Sort / In-place Sort / Out-of-place Sort / Linearithmic Time Complexity / Logarithmic Time Complexity / Quadratic Time Complexity / Pseudocode /
Linear Search Sequential Search / Linear Search / List / Index / Search / Unordered / Comparison / Algorithm / Runtime / Complexity / Linear time complexity / Worst-case scenario / Best-case scenario / Average-case scenario / Efficiency / Big O notation / O(n) / Array / Element / Boolean /
Binary Search Binary Search / Sorted array / Divide and Conquer / Iteration / Target element / Mid-point / Index / Comparison / Time complexity / Space complexity /
Insertion Sort

Subunit 4 - Decomposition & Abstraction

Subprograms Function / Procedure / Parameter / Argument / Recursive function / Modular Programming / Subprograms / Functions / Procedures / Parameters / Arguments / Recursion / Scope / Return statement / Call statement / Local variables /
Abstraction Abstraction / Data abstraction / Abstract class / Abstract data type / Abstraction layer / Procedural abstraction / Abstraction in art /

Subunit 4 - Trace Tables

Trace Tables Trace Tables / Variable / Expression / Statement / Value / Initial value / Final value / Iteration / Condition / Boolean expression / Logical operator / Relational operator / Concatenation / Debugging / Syntax error / Logic error / Runtime error / Function / Recursion /

Unit 8 - Python Programming

Subunit 1 - Programming Fundamentals & Constructs

Variables & Constants variables / constants / data types / declaration / assignment / scope / global variable / local variable / constant expression / type inference /
Sequencing & Selection (If & switch statements) Sequencing / Selection / If statement / Switch statement / Condition / Boolean / Execution path / Nested if statement / Default case /
Definite Iteration Nested Loop / Definite Iteration / For loop / While loop / Iteration / Loop / Counter / Increment / Decrement / Control flow /
Indefinite Iteration Indefinite Iteration / Loop / While loop / Do-while loop / For loop / Break statement / Continue statement / Infinite loop / Conditional loop / Control flow /
Arithmetic Operators Arithmetic Operators / Addition Operator / Subtraction Operator / Multiplication Operator /
Comparison Operators Comparison Operators / == / != / > / < / >= / <= / in / not in / is /
Logical Operators Logical Operators / AND / OR / NOT / XOR /

Subunit 2 - Error Handling & Validation

Error Types Syntax Error / Runtime Error / Logic Error / Type Error / Null Pointer Exception / Arithmetic Error / Index Out of Bounds / File Not Found / Overflow Error / Underflow Error /
Types of Testing Alpha Testing / Beta Testing / Unit Testing / Integration Testing / System Testing / Regression Testing / Performance Testing / Security Testing / Usability Testing / Acceptance Testing /
Test Plans & Test Data Testing / Test Plans / Test Data / Test Case / Test Scenario / Test Suite / Test Execution / Test Coverage / Boundary Testing / Equivalence Partitioning / Regression Testing /
Debugging Techniques Debugging / Breakpoint / Stepping / Variable Watch / Stack Trace / Logging / Assertion / Memory Dump / Code Review / Tracing / Binary Search /
Verification & Validation range check / presence check / format check / length check / syntax check / boundary check / entry verification / validation / luhn / isbn / barcode / checksum / data validation / checksum validation / verification process / barcode scanner / Uniqueness check / Pattern check / Type check / Data integrity / Schema validation /

Subunit 3 - Data Types

Strings Strings / Concatenation / Index / Substring / Length / Escape Sequence / Immutable / Comparing / String Methods / Case Sensitivity /
Integer Integer / Positive Integer / Negative Integer / Zero / Even Integer / Odd Integer / Prime Integer / Composite Integer / Integer Division / Integer Overflow /
Float data type Float data type / Floating-point precision / Floating-point number / Decimal numbers / Floating-point arithmetic / Floating-point constant / Overflow / Underflow /
Boolean Boolean / True / False / Logic / Boolean Operator / AND Operator / OR Operator / NOT Operator / Truth Table / Boolean Algebra /

Subunit 4 - Data Structures

1 Dimensional Arrays 1 Dimensional Arrays / Elements / Index / Array Size / Initialization / Access / Traversal / Search / Insertion / Deletion / Element / Traverse / Update / Sort /
2 Dimensional Arrays 2 Dimensional Arrays / Rows / Columns / Elements / Index / Initialization / Access / Traversal / Array Length / Nested Arrays / Element / Row / Column / Array Size / Modification /
Dictionaries Dictionaries / Key / Value / Mutable / Immutable / Length / Update / Keys / Values / Clear / Pop / Nested Dictionaries / Hash Table / Dictionary Methods / Items / Get / In / Copy / Dictionary Comprehension /
Records data structure Records data structure / Record / Field / Attribute / Key / Value / Index / Linked list / Array / Binary tree /

Subunit 5 - Advanced Topics

Functions & Procedures Procedure / Parameter / Return Value / Local Variable / Global Variable / Recursion / function / argument / call / modularization / Function scope / Block scope / scope / Subprogram / Return statement /
Strings Methods & String Manipulation Strings Methods / String Manipulation / Concatenation / Substring / Length / Indexing / Case Conversion / Replacing / Splitting / Trimming / String slicing / Start index / End index / Step value / Positive index / Negative index /

Subunit 6 - Databases

SELECT Queries

Unit 9 - Logic Gates

Subunit 4 - Logic

Logic Gates Logical operator / AND operator / OR operator / NOT operator / XOR operator / Logic Gates / AND Gate / OR Gate / NOT Gate / NAND Gate / NOR Gate / XOR Gate / XNOR Gate / Half Adder / Full Adder /